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Pineapple family is a kind of ornamental plant with strong ornamental value, especially can be growd indoors. It is of high grade as a family horticulture ornamental plant. Many people don’t know how to raise bromeliad. This paper introduces bromeliad’s breeding methods and precautions.
Bromeliad’s breeding methods and precautions
1. Illumination: pineapple likes half shade, so it should be protected from the hot sun. It should be placed in a half shade or bright window. The original state of pineapple is parasitic under a kind of tree in the tropical rain forest, so the demand for sunlight is not particularly large. When the sunlight is too long, it will produce a part of the leaves yellowing, and then the flower tip is a little dry, and so on. If it is growd outdoors, it should be shaded in spring, summer and autumn, especially 70% in summer. Direct sunlight will make the temperature of the leaves higher than the temperature. If the temperature is too high, it will burn and scorch the leaves, fade the flower buds and slow down the growth of the leaves.
2. Temperature: the optimum growth temperature of pineapple is 20 ℃ to 30 ℃, the maximum temperature should not exceed 35 ℃, the minimum temperature should be 14 ℃, and freezing damage may occur at any time when the temperature is lower than 10 ℃. In winter, it’s better not to put it under the heating, because in that case, it will be very dry, and it will be roasted. It’s impossible for people to always stand by the heating, so it’s easy to get on fire.
3. Water: the potted soil of pineapple family should be slightly dry on the surface, that is, when the soil surface is 1-2 cm dry, the second watering is not allowed. If it is too wet, it is easy to rot the root. There is a leaf tube in the leaf root of pineapple family plants, and there is a water tank in the leaf tube. To ensure that there is water in the water tank, it can not be broken. After a period of time, for example, about 10 days, it is necessary to replace it, so as to prevent the water from smelling. At ordinary times, you can spray mist water on the surface, leaves and flowers. The optimum air relative humidity is 70% to 80% and should not be lower than 50%, because maintaining high air humidity is the key to the success of Anthurium andraeanum plant. Therefore, more water should be sprayed on the leaves throughout the year.
4. Soil use: Potted Anthurium andraeanum should select the substrate with good drainage, and the mixed matrix of peat, perlite and sand for large-scale production, with the ratio of 1 cubic meter of Peat: 4-5 kg of perlite: 0.15 m3 of sand. The pH value is between 5.5 and 6.5. If a small amount of rotten chicken manure can be put into the bottom of the pot, the base fertilizer such as cake powder or bone meal will grow better;
5. Fertilization: in the growing season from April to September every year, liquid fertilizer should be applied once every two weeks, including fermented organic fertilizer, spraying 0.1% urea and 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution on the front and back sides of leaves, and irrigating some extremely thin liquid fertilizer into the leaf tube, which is absorbed by the basal scales. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 10:15:20
6. Propagation: it is usually propagated by ramets. At present, tissue culture method is often used for mass propagation, and seeds are used for breeding. The ramets can be planted separately after cutting the tillers and buds of the adult mother plants in spring; the tissue culture mostly takes young leaves as explants, and then induces the differentiation of cluster buds by callus, and then rooting into seedlings. It takes about 4 months from inoculation to seedling transplanting, and blooms in 2-3 years after planting.
The above is bromeliad’s breeding methods and precautions. Bromeliad is very suitable for interior decoration. She likes to have enough sunshine for at least 3 hours a day, but she is also resistant to half shade. She likes cool and ventilated in summer, and can also slightly resist dry climate.