- Introduction: What is Cyclamen?
- Cyclamen care Conditions: Light, Soil and Water and Fertilizer
- Cyclamen Planting: Planting, Transplanting and Repotting
- Cyclamen Prune: When and How to cut or reduce?
- Cyclamen Propagation: How to Multiplication the correct way
- Species and varieties of Cyclamen
- Cyclamen Care and Maintenance: Overwintering and so on
- Cyclamen Diseases
- Ecological & Environment guide of Cyclamen
Introduction: What is Cyclamen?
Cyclamen is a genus of 23 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Primulaceae. Cyclamen species are native to Europe and the Mediterranean Basin east to Iran, with one species in Somalia. They grow from tubers and are valued for their flowers with upswept petals and variably patterned leaves.
It was traditionally classified in the family Primulaceae, was reclassified in the family Myrsinaceae in 2000, and finally, in 2009 with the introduction of the APG III system, was returned to the subfamily Myrsinoideae within the family Primulaceae.
Cyclamen care Conditions: Light, Soil and Water and Fertilizer
If light levels can be controlled by the use of whitewash or shading screens to give partial shade in summer, and by substitute lamps to make up a deficit, then plants of compact habit will be obtained.
The level that suits cyclamen is 40,000 lux.
We should point out that a lack of light at the heart of the plant is often due to packing the plants too close or not spacing them out early enough.
The importance of light in cyclamen growing
We should first of all observe that cyclamen do not respond to day-length as such: the formation of the flower buds is not influenced by changes in the hours of daylight. The increase in the overall quantity of light, however (length of day and light intensity) does encourage bud stalks to grow and flowers to develop.
Cyclamen are plants that need a lot of light. Any deficiency shows up in the plant as over-long stalks, over-large leaves of a soft texture, and a delay in flowering. The plants become too large, lose their resistance and keep less well.
Increasing quantities of light, on the other hand, encourages a tendency to compact plants. During certain periods of the year, though, especially in summer, it is essential to shade the plants, in order to ensure that the leaves do not receive too much sunshine and above all to avoid too high a glasshouse temperature (cf. § on the control of summer temperatures under glass). Shading is thus an essential factor in producing good plants.
Shading can be done by temporary use of screens, or by whitewashing the glasshouse.
Shading is important when spells of strong sunshine follow straight after spells of weak sunshine. The same applies after such operations as pricking out, potting up or setting out at full distance. Before the final spacing, the plants are close-packed and their lower leaves are therefore kept in a microclimate which is moist and shaded by the upper leaves. When they are first spaced out, then, they are all the more sensitive to sunlight.
It may be desirable at times to decrease the incident sunlight in order to keep glasshouse temperatures within the right range for the plants; but there are also times when the sunlight needs supplementing artificially, when it is so deficient that the quality of the plants might suffer. If there is too little light in winter for good cyclamen growing, this is supplemented with extra lighting, known as artificial sunlight. It improves the vegetative growth of the plants and the number of flowers, and extends the flowering season when natural light is very scarce. Thanks to this practice it is possible to have plants in full flower for the Easter festival or Mothering Sunday without the whole cycle taking more than 8 months. However the practice does have the drawback that it produces more elongated plants, and weaker plant tissue.
To provide this kind of light, SON-T lamps with sideways diffusing reflectors (30-35 W/sq.m. at about 3000 lux at plant level) are adapted.
This supplementary lighting is applied from November until February/March, depending on natural lighting conditions; it is also brought into play when outside lighting falls below 5000 lux. The aim is to provide a quantity of light normal in March or October.
Soil and Fertilizer
It is recommended to use loose soil, which is more conducive to the respiration of its root system; it is recommended to use soil with high humus content, which can provide it with sufficient nutrients; it is recommended to add perlite to regulate the pH of the soil. Specifically, peat soil, perlite and vermiculite can be mixed together to form its soil.
I. soil conditions
- Drainage: most of the plants are suitable for growing in the soil with good drainage, including the pothos. If the water is unable to penetrate, or it is easy to accumulate water, it will cause the plant to lack of water or submerge the root, which is harmful to its growth. Adding river sand to basin soil can improve its drainage.
- Air permeability: the respiration of the pothos depends on the root, so it is necessary to have good air permeability of the soil. If the soil hardens, it will lead to poor respiration of the root, which will easily cause the plant to wither. Regular loosening can solve the problem of air permeability.
- Nutrition: in addition to fertilization, the humus rich in the soil itself can also provide nutrition. Add some humus to the flowerpot, which can meet the needs of plant growth.
- Acidity: Chloranthus is suitable for growing in slightly acidic soil. If the soil alkalization is serious, it is easy to make the leaves yellow and wither. Perlite can be mixed into the basin soil, or poured with ferrous sulfate solution to improve
How to prepare
For seedlings or cuttings, the soil should be saprophytic soil or humus soil. Perlite can be added to saprophytic soil to improve the pH value of soil and improve the air permeability. Humus can be added to the sand to enhance the drainage.
For the growing pothos, peat soil, perlite and vermiculite are generally selected and mixed in the proportion of 3:1:1.
Water and Humidity
Temperature & Humidity Requirements. Is it because it has a beautiful organic fragrance? Although overwatering often kills the plant, it’s sometimes possible to revive the cyclamen if you act quickly. It’s a very good question – and thanks to your asking, I looked up more interesting names for the Cyclamen flower. It is a tuberous perennial with heart-shaped leaves and flowers in shades of pink, red, or white. Add charm and elegance: create wonderful displays with contrasting colours.They have been tested in many real-life conditions and certified as Plant your Indiaka® cyclamen in a bright spot, away from direct sunlight, sheltered from bad weather.Remove old flowers and leaves by pulling the stem at the base. The cyclamen flower is associated…Wait for the soil to have dried thoroughly between 2 watering sessions, and avoid any excess water that might drown the plant.Avoid having nearby heat sources, such as radiators or a South-facing window.Hello Mustafa! This helps keep the plant looking beautiful and will stimulate new flower growth.• Outdoors, the INDIAKA® cyclamen can withstand first frosts and temperatures as low as -2°C/28°F. Keep the temperature around 60° F (15.5° C). Frequently check your cyclamen for tired flowers.
When you water the plant, water from below the leaves so that the water doesn’t touch the stems or leaves. Watering 2 or 3 times a week should be enough. Do not allow the water to touch the crown of the plant. Share about your garden joys and woes?This twisting and tugging step is required because if a portion of the wilted stem remains, it might rot and make the bulb rot.mustafa almanshof wrote on 14 February 2019 at 7 h 25 minGaspard Lorthiois wrote on 19 February 2019 at 12 h 39 minFor Corrigiola, also called strapwort, here is an article that may help you a bit: But be careful! Water your cyclamen plant only when the soil is dry to the touch, but do not leave the plant in this dry state so long that it shows visible signs of not being watered, such as droopy leaves and flowers. If you’re unsure how to look after them don’t fret, we’re here to help you with some tips for keeping your cyclamens looking great!Cyclamens are well suited to the climate of the Southern Highlands, they love a cool, dry environment and are best kept indoors in natural, filtered light.
Wait for the soil to have dried thoroughly between 2 watering sessions, and avoid any excess water that might drown the plant. Features of watering cyclamen. Dip the shears into a solution of one part bleach to nine parts water after each cut so they don’t spread fungal pathogens to the cyclamen.Lift the cyclamen from the overwatered pot if the soil is exceptionally soggy or if the plant is beginning to rot.
Water your cyclamen once every week, and less frequently in Winter (roughly every ten days). Some growers recommend avoiding this by not watering overhead.
Temperature (overwintering and over-summer)
The average daily temperature can impact cyclamen culture.
Temperature has a strong impact on the production of cyclamen. It is a brake or accelerator of growth in terms of culture time and plant volume.
High temperatures allow rapid and significant plant development, while low temperatures slow down growth and lead to smaller plants volumes for the same variety. It is a decisive factor for the flowering quality (number of flowers, central bouquet, straight stems, lifespan of flowers, detachment of flowers in relation to foliage, intensity of color).
The bigger the foliage volume, the more freshness the plant needs to reduce its transpiration and put its energy into the flowering stage. Compact plants adapt more easily to different temperature conditions
Cyclamen Planting: Planting, Transplanting and Repotting
Early August is prime time to clean up and repot winter growing greenhouse bulbs. The Cyclamen species are just starting to break dormancy, but it’s not too late to repot or topdress them, since most Cyclamen dislike root disturbance. Particularly the Greek species C. graecum, so I like to repot these every three years, just as the start to think about growing for the autumn.
This large Cyclamen africanum bulb has long roots that may seem dormant in the hot summer, but they actually will grow deep into the slightly damp sand of the raised bulb bed, where they search for just the perfect amount ot moisture. Other species of Cyclamen survive the hot summer just fine, with no water at all, but I’ find that C. graecum prefers a touch of moisture. Repotting late, ensures that growth will start quickly as the weather changes, and I am less likely to lose bulbs.
This C. africanum bulb which I started from seed, is now almost 7 inches in diameter.
Smaller C. graecum are carefully excavated, to see how active the roots are. Since these are young, and have stronger root systems, I am only removing half of the soil.
I will topdress these pots with a fresh mix of one third composted peanut hulls, one third giant perlite, and one third gravel. Cyclamen graecum prefer a fast draining compost, since they abhor dampness around their bulbs. Some enthusiasts plant this species in pure sand or pure perlite, but I find that the addition of BioComp, thanks to Cyclamen expert John Lonsdale, adds to my success.
Repotted Cyclamen species are topdressed with granite gravel chips, and set aside for a week under shade cloth and under glass. Inside the greenhouse, it gets very hot during these late summer days, but even though our cool nights have just started, some Cyclamen are already starting to grow.
Tiny bulblets are often found when repotting, formed from seeds that were self sown in the pots. These I pot up into 3 inch clay pots, and these too are topdressed in gravel, and will be set into the sand bed. All of the cyclamen are still allowed to rest until night time temperatures start to drop, which will be in a couple of weeks. I will then water them all well, and within a month, all will be in full bloom.
A few pots are already blooming, so I moved them outdoors since the greenhouse is too hot for the flowers. I will allow these to get any rain, if we get it this week, but mostly, they will remain dry until the fall begins. It’s amazing to see Mother Nature as she starts to trigger growth with autumn flowering plants. There is no holding her back, sometimes.
Cyclamen Prune: When and How to cut or reduce?
The 20 species of dense, mounding plants within the Cyclamen genus, identified by their silver and green heart-shaped leaves, produce bunches of tall, attractive flowers in red, pink, white and purple during the winter season. Dormant during the summer, these perennials save up energy for four weeks of winter bloom. Although hardy Cyclamen varieties grow outdoors in U.S. Department of Agriculture cold hardiness zones 9 and 10, the common indoor cultivar Cyclamen persicum can grow anywhere temperatures are kept between 40 and 58 degrees Fahrenheit. Proper care and pruning can keep indoor and outdoor plants healthy and promote secondary blooms after the first winter flowering.
Prune dead, yellowed and dying leaves as soon as they appear, clipping them close to the base of the plant, and clear away all debris from fallen plant matter to keep the cyclamen healthy.
Deadhead cyclamen plants to ground level once flowering is finished in order to promote further blooms. Hold the base of each flower stem between the fingers, and twist it to pull the stems away from the crown.
Prune away all dead plant material during the summer dormant period, leaving only the buried tuber. Cyclamen plants “rest” during the dormant season, storing up energy for the next year, and should not waste energy on dying stems. Discard all dead leaves at the base of the plant.
Cyclamen Propagation: How to Multiplication the correct way
Cyclamen Propagation Step 1
Before sowing, soak the cyclamen seeds in warm water for at least 12 hours, to soften the seed coat, then rinse. Sow seeds into pots of compost, spacing them evenly.
Sowing cyclamen seed
Cyclamen Propagation Step 2
Sprinkle a layer of fine vermiculite or compost over the seeds until the surface is covered completely.
Sprinkling vermiculite over the cyclamen seed
Cyclamen Propagation Step 3
Water, then cover with a sheet of glass and a layer of black polythene to shut out the light and encourage germination. Keep temperature no higher than 16° – 21°.
Watering the pot after sowing cyclamen seed
Cyclamen Propagation Step 4
Check pot regularly. Germination can take 30 – 60 days, and once the seedlings appear, remove the covering and pop your pot into a bright position.
Cyclamen Propagation Step 5
Leaves develop from a tiny tuber, and once two or three leaves have formed the plants can be potted up separately.
Small cyclamen plant
Cyclamen Propagation Step 6
Plant individually into 7.5cm pots of multi-purpose compost, keeping the tiny tuber level with the surface of the compost.
Potted cyclamen plant
Cyclamen Propagation Step 7
Pot on into larger containers as your plants grow, watering them regularly and feeding them once a week. Most varieties should begin flowering about nine months after sowing. Keep them in a cool spot.
Species and varieties of Cyclamen
Cyclamen heredifolium, also known as ivy-leaved cyclamen, is a robust species that tolerates relatively cold winters. In the United States, it has naturalized in parts of the Pacific Northwest. This autumn-flowering species, popular and easy to grow in the home garden, blooms in shades of pink or white tinged with pink. Grow C. heredifolium in Zones 5 through 7.
Cyclamen varieties within this species include:
- ‘Nettleton Silver’
- ‘Pewter White’
- ‘Silver Arrow’
- ‘Silver Cloud’
- ‘Bowle’s Apollo’
- ‘White Cloud’
Cyclamen coum sports quarter-sized green or patterned, rounded or heart-shaped leaves that typically appear in autumn. Small, bright flowers poke up through the foliage in midwinter. This species is hardy to USDA zones 6 and above.
Varieties of C. coum include several cultivars within the ‘Pewter Leaf’ group as well as the following:
- ‘Maurice Dryden’
- ‘Something Magic’
- ‘Silver Leaf’
Cyclamen graecum can be difficult to grow and often isn’t as vigorous as other varieties. However, this species is stunning, with velvety, deep green foliage in vivid colors and patterns. Tiny blooms, sometimes sweetly scented, rise just above the foliage in late summer and autumn. This tender variety is suitable for zones 7 through 9.
Cyclamen plant varieties within the C. graecum species include ‘Glyfada’ and ‘Rhodopou.’
Cyclamen mirabile is a charming fall bloomer that produces dainty little flowers and decorative, silver dollar-sized leaves in patterns of green and silver. This species grows in zones 6 through 8.
Varieties of C. mirabile include ‘Tilebarn Ann,’ ‘Tilebarn Nicholas’ and ‘Tilebarn Jan.’
Cyclamen Care and Maintenance: Overwintering and so on
Preparing your greenhouse to maintain color throughout the winter can be fun, exciting, and challenging. Cyclamen that were potted in the middle of the summer, should now be moved inside to weather the winter from the safety of your greenhouse. The plant will react to the change in temperature by encouraging growth and flowering. Keeping the cyclamen moist, but not wet, will allow the soil to remain well drained. If the foliage begins the wilt, that is a sign that the plant needs additional watering.
Be sure to pay attention to water levels, because if the plant receives to much water, it may begin to rot. When watering the plant, be sure to water from under the leaves, not over the foliage. Depending on the care given, the plant will flower for week or even months in some cases.
During the winter growing periods, attempt to keep the greenhouse at a constant 61F degrees. Over fertilizing your plant will cause it to yellow, so pay close attention to those levels as well. Once the plant is finished blooming, you should let it dry completely and leave the bulb in the pot until you are ready to plant it again.
Depending on the size of the bulb, a larger pot may be required. Remember not to plant the bulb to deep, a 1/2 inch of soil is the appropriate depth. If proper care is taken, a bulb can last a gardener many years.
Growers should be aware of these devastating diseases in cyclamen: Bacterial soft rot and Fusarium wilt cause the entire plant to rapidly turn yellow and die. There is nothing to do but discard the plant. To prevent these cyclamen diseases, buy corms from reputable sources and plant them in clean media. If you are reusing a pot, scrub it out thoroughly with a household disinfectant or a weak bleach solution before planting. Botrytis blight causes tan leaf spots.
Flower petals look water-soaked at first, and then they develop tans spots as well. The whole plant might be covered with gray fungus. You might be able to save your cyclamen if you catch the disease soon enough. Place it in isolation and run a fan to improve the circulation. The disease is contagious, so keep a close eye on plants that may have been exposed. Leaf spot causes round spots that can be yellow, gray or brown. If you look closely, you’ll see black dots inside the spots. Isolate the plant to keep the disease from spreading.
Try to avoid getting water on the leaves or the crown when you water the plant. If you can’t water cyclamen from the top without wetting the leaves or crown, water from the bottom. Thielaviopsis root rot causes stunted plants. If you check the roots, you’ll find that they are black and shriveled instead of plump and white.
Discard plants infected with this disease. Viruses cause a number of symptoms, including misshapen, deformed leaves and flowers, and abnormal color patterns such as streaking and ring spots. If you suspect your plant is infected with a virus, discard it immediately.
Ecological & Environment guide of Cyclamen
The cyclamen is a beautiful houseplant commonly sold in supermarkets. It is also called the Persian violet and Sowbread. Cyclamen contains irritating saponins, and when any part of the plant (especially the tubers or roots) are chewed or ingested by dogs and cats, it can result in clinical signs of drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. With large ingestions, these plants can result in cardiac problems (e.g., abnormal heart rate and rhythm), seizures and death.