The key to success or failure of orchid plant lies in Qi. It is suitable to use earthenware pots for raising Orchidaceae, because of its good drainage and ventilation performance, while the purple sand pot is permeable and poor in air permeability, easy to rot roots and poor flowering. Choose a suitable clay tile pot and make 10 to 12 holes with a diameter of 1 cm. The root of Orchidaceae can absorb nutrients, water and oxygen. In order to maintain the porosity and ventilation, we often need to pad some tiles, bricks, etc. for ventilation and growth. If the rotten wood blocks were used to pad the pots, the germination and growth of Orchidaceae were better.
Rotten wood pad pot has the following advantages.
1. Loose wood is more conducive to ventilation
Loose wood,like sponge, has a certain function of water absorption and moisture retention, which can prevent the culture soil from sudden drying and sudden wetting, and maintain a good growth environment of Orchidaceae, especially suitable for balcony maintenance.
2. Using rotten wood to pad pot is more light than brick and tile.
The plant materials for farming orcidaceae should be drained. The key point of orchid plant is to raise roots, and the root rot is caused by poor permeability and drainage of plant materials. Practice has proved that the best way for orchid plant is to mix the granular planting materials with the screened Orchidaceae mud.
The principle of “do not dry in summer and autumn, and not wet in winter and spring” should be grasped when watering orcidaceae. Most of the water in the north is neutral water, and the pot soil is alkaline after long-term irrigation. Therefore, rainwater or snow water is the best for orcidaceae watering, and hard water or alkaline water with excessive mineral content should not be used. In addition to keeping the soil moist, we should also increase the environmental humidity. In summer growth period, water should be sprayed to the pot or the ground, and the relative humidity should be kept at 50% to 70%, but the humidity should not be too high to avoid disease. In spring, the dry soil should not be dried in the north.
We pay attention to the fertilization of Orchidaceae. We seldom use base fertilizer for plant of Orchidaceae. Most of them are topdressing liquid fertilizer. During the growth period, we apply thin and decomposed liquid fertilizer once every 5 to 10 days. It is not suitable to apply fertilizer before and after flowering. In general, we should master the principle of “being diligent and light, and avoiding sudden and thick”. In addition, fertilizer should be applied in the evening or when there is no wind or rain, and the treated water should be watered once in the morning of the next day to spray the leaves.
Orchidaceae belongs to semi negative plants, but it doesn’t blossom or seldom blooms in the shade, and the shade tolerance varies with species. Cymbidium sinense has strong shade tolerance, Cymbidium ensifolium takes the second place, and Cymbidium faberi needs sufficient light.
Only in the fresh air can orcidaceae breathe and photosynthesis normally, promote metabolism, enhance water, nutrient absorption and operation, as well as the production and accumulation of nutrients, reduce diseases and insect pests, and make the orchid grow vigorously. Therefore, good ventilation can ensure the fresh air and keep the orcidaceae well.
3. Most of the orchid diseases are caused by the high temperature and humidity in the small environment
The hot and airless environment, and the rapid spread of pathogens and insects, especially aphids, whiteflies, scale insects, brown spot disease, white silk disease, etc.
4. Ventilation of site and shade shed
The site should be as spacious as possible and at a high place. The flower bed can be made of bricks and stones. The bottom of the empty flowerpot can also be placed to the sky, so that the orchid pot can be 20 cm to 40 cm above the ground. Especially in the places with poor ventilation, the orchid pot should be placed as high as possible. The shade should use bamboo curtain and bamboo fence, which is cheap and good in quality and ventilation.
5. If the indoor ventilation is not good
the proportion of various gases in the air will be changed, the harmful gas will increase, and the useful gas will be reduced, which will affect the growth and development of Orchidaceae, and it is easy to be infected with mold, rot, and even be poisoned. For houses, closed plastic shed or glass shed, especially for those heated by coal, when the indoor temperature exceeds 10 ℃, the windows or films should be opened every day. In winter, when the temperature is high, the electric fan should be used for directional exhaust. The temperature of the greenhouse is generally higher than that of the lower part, so the air inlet should be in the lower part, while the air outlet should be in the upper part, so the ventilation speed is fast and the harmful gas can be eliminated thoroughly.
Pay attention to the ventilation and water spraying at the same time, deal with the relationship among ventilation, heat preservation and moisture preservation, and prevent direct blowing of cold wind. The density of orchid pots placed indoors should be sparse rather than dense, and enough distance should be kept. If the area is narrow, the flower terrace can be built into a ladder shape. Attention should be paid to rinsing the surface of the orchid regularly, and to ensure that the pores are smooth.
6. Ochidaceae anthracnose
It mainly damages the leaves. At the early stage of the disease, dark brown spots appear on the leaves, and there are chlorotic halos around the leaves. The lesions were oval or long strip after enlargement. The margin is dark brown, the interior is yellowish brown, and the lesion is slightly uplifted. In the later stage, black particles appeared on the lesion, and the pink colloid was extruded from the black particles under wet conditions, which were the conidial disc and conidial pile of the pathogen. Anthrax occurred for a long time, especially from July to August.
Prevention: pay attention to ventilation and light transmission. Reasonable fertilization, improve disease resistance, long-term control of the application of nitrogen fertilizer, appropriate application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. 50% carbendazim or 70% tobuzin WP (500-800 times) were sprayed at the initial stage of the disease.
7. Ochidaceae leaf spot
It is a kind of fungal disease that damages leaves and can occur throughout the growth period.
High temperature and humidity, scale insects and poor ventilation are easy to cause leaf spot disease. The leaf spot was brown at the initial stage of the disease, and after expansion, it was long oval to long strip, with reddish brown edge and grayish brown inside. In the later stage, black particles were scattered on the lesions.
Prevention and control: ① improve ventilation conditions and eliminate pests. (2) at the beginning of the disease, 50% BT 1000 times solution or 65% times of zinc 800 times liquid spray were used to prevent and cure it.
8. Control methods of archidaceae scale insects
Orchid louse is commonly known as orchid louse, which is a kind of piercing sucking mouthparts pest. The scales are long brown, long yellow, and long, yellow, and protruding from the female. Eggs pale yellow, elliptic, ca. 0. 1 mm long. The newly hatched nymphs are ovoid and yellowish brown.
Occurrence regularity: it has two to three generations a year and overwinters on the leaves of orchids by fertilized female adults. In May of the following year, it laid eggs in the shell of female adults, and the newly hatched nymphs crawled out of the female shell. After a short period of crawling, it fixed on the main vein and leaf edge of the leaves of Cymbidium officinalis, sucking juice and injuring, and gradually forming the scale. The second generation nymphs appeared in August and matured in September and October.
Damage situation: the most serious damage is from June to September. The blue louse often concentrates on the base road and veins of blue leaves to absorb nutrition and secrete a large number of bacteria. The stems and leaves become moldy brown, causing various diseases, blocking photosynthesis and weakening the growth of Orchidaceae. In severe cases, light yellow spots and macula appeared on the leaves, and then gradually expanded, resulting in the whole leaf withered and yellow, lost green and fell off, and even the whole plant died.
When a small amount occurs, a soft toothbrush or a small brown brush can be used to gently brush away along the leaves, or thin bamboo chips can be used to scrape off the body. The plant environment and orchid pot should be ventilated and transparent, and the pot soil should not be too wet. 80% dichlorvos emulsion can be added 1000 to 1500 times of water to make a solution, spray twice a week. 5-8 grams of 5% Furadan was applied around the pot soil, and it could be killed after 7 days of irrigation. When the disease is found, isolate the disease strain to prevent infection.
The above is my opinion. If there is something wrong, please leave your opinion in the comments. We are specially invited to pay attention to “picking stones and growing flowers”, and discuss the flower plant experience together!